April 30, 1975 Born in 1890, Ho Chi Minh was the son of a Confusion scholar and early in life became a teacher. Between 1912 and 1919, Ho lived in both the United States and England working as a chef and baker including a stint at the Parker House Hotel in Boston. From 1919-1923 He continued his education in France and became a communist and began advocating independence for what was then called French Indochina. He later lived in both the Soviet Union and China before returning to Vietnam in 1941 to lead the Viet Minh independence movement fighting both the Vichy French and Japanese during World War II. He borrowed heavily from the American and French traditions and issued a Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. After the French abandoned Vietnam in 1954, the Geneva Accords celled for the division of Vietnam into a Communist North and Non-communist South. This lead to what would eventually be called the Vietnam War and Ho Chi Minh, as President of North Vietnam, lead the insurgency that sought to unify both halves into a united, communist Vietnam. He died in 1969 but he remained the leader of the revolution even in death. When the government of South Vietnam collapsed on April 30, 1975, the capital of Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh city in his honor. Though he did not live to see it, Vietnam eventually became an independent, united nation.